An age-specific birth rate is the number of babies born within a 5-year increment during reproductive years. Fertility rate, average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.For the population in a given area to remain stable, an overall total fertility rate of 2.1 is needed, assuming no immigration or emigration occurs.. Demographers use several measures of fertility. The momentum of past and current demographic trends may also take several generations to work itself out. The TFR is the calculation of adding up all the age-specific birth rates for a population and multiplying by five. This demographic balance could occur when the birth rate and death rate are equal. The total fertility rate can be calculated using age-specific birth rates. Population momentum occurs because it is not only the number of children per woman that determine population growth, but also the number of women in reproductive age. THIRUVANATHAPURAM: Kerala is heading for a significant phase in its demographic transition with the state moving towards achieving zero population growth rate, which will lead to scarcity of labour. Replacement level fertility will lead to zero population growth only if mortality rates remain constant and migration has no effect. Family planning programs that expand access to modern contraceptive education, services, and supplies operate for the benefit of the individuals who may choose to participate — or not — at their own discretion. It is important to distinguish birth rates—which are defined as the number of live births per 1,000 women in the total population—from fertility rates. Zero population growth refers to a population that is unchanging – it is neither growing, nor declining; the growth rate is zero. Mali's 2017 growth rate of 3.02 was the result of fertility rates doubling in only 23 years. Thus, zero population growth occurs when birth and death rates are equal. Population momentum is a consequence of the demographic transition.Population momentum explains why a population will continue to grow even if the fertility rate declines. But be careful, because this is not always the case. A change to replacement level fertility therefore leads to zero population growth only in the long run. Fertility refers to the number of live births. If Mali's high total fertility rate per woman remains the same or even continues to grow, its population will essentially explode. Germany’s population has been in decline since 1974, while the United Kingdom (UK), Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since the beginning of the 1980s (ESCEC 1986). Mali's population in 2017 was approximately 18.5 million, up from 12 million just a decade prior. 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